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The Dangers of Drunk Driving
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Research paper on drinking and driving - The Writing Center.
Likely to cause a fatal crash; legally drunk drivers pose a risk 13 times greater than sober. With minors in the vehicle, and proposed task forces or commissions to study the problem in depth. This essay explores the effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints in reducing the.
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But research indicates that as few as three officers can operate an effective checkpoint. In this paper, we propose utilizing mobile phones as the plat- form for drunk. Research paper on henry vii essay about terry fox public school essayer en vain english. Paper are those of the author and not necessarily those of the National Highway. TIRF also wishes to thank the following individuals for their assistance and input.
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Punishment and Deterrence: Evidence from Drunk Driving. The research paper comments that in , Uber still represents a. During the last ten years laws against drunk driving have changed radically, and today. The decrease in impaired-driving crashes in the United States coincided with similar trends in other industrialized nations Sweedler et al. The reductions experienced during the last one-third of the 20th century by many countries may have been attributed, at least in part, to the adoption of scientific advances in the methods for measuring BACs and the use of that information in programs to reduce impaired driving.
When impaired driving was first criminalized early in the 20th century i. BACs can be determined with substantial precision compared with the relatively subjective behavioral signs of intoxication. In addition, it provides a means of quantifying the relative risk of crash involvement as a function of alcohol consumption as measured in BAC units.
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That relationship is shown in figure 4, which illustrates the rise in crash risk as BAC increases on the basis of a case—control study by Blomberg and colleagues In that study, BAC data were collected for crash-involved drivers and paired with non—crash-involved drivers using the roads at the same location and at the same time of day and day of week as the crash-involved drivers.
Such relative-risk studies have encouraged the adoption of illegal-per-se laws by national legislatures in European countries and by State and provincial legislatures in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Laws based on the BAC level increase the efficiency of enforcement efforts. For example, in the past, Swedish laws required that a physician examine a driver accused of impaired driving before the charge could be brought, but with the per se law, it became possible to proceed on the basis of a blood test.
This process culminated in the s and s with the development of accurate handheld preliminary breath test PBT units that officers could use in the field. This resulted in a revolution in the methods for enforcing impaired-driving laws through the combination of field BAC tests and the random stopping of motorists. Australia carried this process the furthest by developing a random-breath-testing RBT enforcement system in which officers were stopping motorists at random day and night and administering a mandatory PBT.
A reading higher than the 0. RBT is believed to derive its power from the uncertainty it creates in potential DWI offenders about their ability to avoid attracting the attention of the police by driving slowly and carefully. It also counters the notion that, if stopped, the offender can avoid appearing impaired and therefore will not be required to take a BAC test.
Sweden adopted the RBT procedure, but other nations, such as Great Britain, adopted more limited versions of the field-testing program that did not provide for random stopping but allowed police to require a field breath test under specified conditions, such as involvement in a crash or arrest for a traffic offense Ross Constitution, which requires that searches and seizures be reasonable.
The U. Conducting a breath test a search with a handheld unit, which requires less than 30 seconds, also might have been considered a minor intrusion because it could have been justified by the need of the State to protect the driving public. This possibility has never been reviewed by the Supreme Court, however. As a result, in the United States, roadside breath tests cannot be required without a basis for suspecting that the driver is impaired.
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Thus, RBT in the United States is limited to stopping motorists at specially designed checkpoints, conducting brief interrogations, and observing the drivers to determine whether they are under the influence of alcohol. Only when the signs of impairment are present can an officer test the driver for BAC.
The failure to find a compromise on the Fourth Amendment prohibition against random preliminary breath testing in the field was exacerbated by State policies regarding the evidential chemical testing of breath or blood once an offender is arrested. Although the U. Supreme Court in Schmerber v. State of California 86 S Ct  held that drivers validly arrested for DWI had no right to refuse a BAC test, the States enacted implied-consent laws to avoid the possibility of having to restrain offenders to force a BAC test.dartgitama.ml
Drinking And Driving
Given the heavy penalties associated with a DWI conviction, a limited period of license suspension has not proved to be a sufficient motivation to ensure the acceptance of the evidential test. Chemical-test refusal rates run as high as 71 percent in some States Voas et al. The effectiveness of the State BAC per se laws, aside from being compromised by the ability of DWI offenders to avoid chemical testing, faces another limitation: the test only can be required if there is probable cause to make a DWI arrest.
Therefore, States must maintain their historic impaired-driving laws on the basis of driver behavior because the requirement to take a BAC test rests on probable cause to make the arrest. These problems and policies developed in reaction to Fourth Amendment requirements significantly limit the extent to which the illegal-per-se concept can be applied in the United States. This has led to a hybrid enforcement system described below. Aside from new breath-test technologies, two factors played a major role in the reduction of impaired-driving fatal crashes described above and shown in figure 1.
Second, the emergence of citizen activism in , led by Mothers Against Drunk Driving MADD , helped focus public attention on drunken driving and stimulated support for enhanced impaired-driving laws Fell and Voas MADD established offices and chapters in the majority of States and provided an active legislative education program that promoted the passage of the evidence- based DWI laws enacted during the last 30 years.
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The current U. Because deterrence is based on the perception of the probability of apprehension and sanctioning and not on the actual numbers of citations and sanction actions Ross , emphasis has been placed on high-visibility enforcement that attracts public attention. There currently are three broad classes of DWI enforcement: 1 standard traffic enforcement operations, in which officers stop vehicles to issue traffic citations for aberrant driving and, if alerted to the possibility that a driver is impaired, initiate a DWI investigation and make an arrest if appropriate; 2 dedicated patrol operations on weekend nights, where officers concentrate on the detection of DWI offenders these dedicated patrol procedures substantially increase DWI arrests because the most highly skilled and motivated officers are assigned to these operations and they are mounted at times when impaired drivers are most prevalent on the roadways ; and 3 sobriety checkpoints.
Both dedicated patrols and sobriety checkpoints are viewed as high-visibility methods because they are visible to the driving public, attract media attention, and therefore can be publicized in print and electronic media. However, both of these high-visibility enforcement strategies often depend on Federal funding from the State Highway Safety Offices rather than the local enforcement budget.
This means that many, if not most, police departments limit the use of both of these methods.